Hints & Tips
Tom Bol, March 25, 2017
Here's one of Tom's "old" magazine articles reproduced and edited:
“This is a really nice image.” I tell Jay, a photo workshop participant. I’m teaching a landscape photo workshop, and this afternoon we are doing image critiques.
“I like the horizontal line, the foggy atmosphere, and the silhouetted person on the sidewalk. But there is one thing I would do different.”
“Maybe crop out the side of the tree?” Jay asks.
“No, I think the tree is okay. I think you need to crop out the red stop sign. Everything in your shot implies a tranquil, sleepy scene…except the bright red sign. Red distracts the viewer from the man, and implies danger and action. This scene is all about calm. To improve the image, you need to use color that supports the image concept.”
Color is a critical design element in an image. Some photographers, like Peter Turner and Eric Meola, have based their careers on photographing color. Color is their subject matter, not a supporting element. But for many photographers, color is an after thought in their image. I’m guilty of this mistake as well. I could change the color in post-production, but this doesn’t excuse my oversight when I captured the image. Color needs to be considered in every image.
Here’s the million-dollar question: What color(s) is best for your shot? The good news is learning color theory is simple. And once you understand what color implies, you can use this knowledge to create stronger images. Just remember one concept when you are composing an image.
Design elements need to support one another and point in the same direction. Harmonious design elements create a strong image. If one design element goes against the concept that the other elements imply, the image won’t be as strong as it could be.
Before we can look at individual colors and color combinations, we need to have a basic understanding of color theory. One of my favorite questions to ask a photography workshop is, ‘What are the primary colors?’ Usually more than half the class replies red, green and blue. We live and work in such a RGB world that it makes sense that these are the primary colors. For the visible spectrum of light, such as in computer monitors, LCD projectors and our DSLR’s (or mirrorless camera) sensor, red, green and blue are indeed the primary colors. This is the additive color theory model. That is, when we combine them we get white.
But we photographers (and artists too) work in the pigment and paint based world. Here we use the traditional, or subtractive color theory model where red, blue and yellow are the primary colors. When we subtract them we, again, get white. By the way, they’re called primaries because they’re the only colors that can’t be created by mixing any other colors together. Equal part mixtures of any two of these colors result in the secondary colors of green, orange and purple. And, yes, there are tertiary (or intermediate) colors too. Continued mixing of these colors results in an endless array of hues. But to keep things simple, let’s just look at the primary and secondary colors and what they imply to the viewer.
Color has been studied and analyzed since the 1400s and Leonardo Da Vinci. Designers, painters and photographers use these established theories in their work. Entire advertising campaigns are based around color and its implied meaning. The significance of color can be different from a cultural standpoint too. We think of white as representing purity and innocence, a perfect choice for a bride’s wedding dress. But in some cultures white signifies mourning and death. Different cultural color associations may affect how you use color in your image.
Below are popular colors and their established meaning. The next time you’re composing a shot, study the colors in the image. Do they help or hinder your concept? Once you recognize the color significance and use it to your advantage, you are on the way to creating better images.
Red is one of my favorite colors to use in an image. Red implies love, danger, heat and action. Red catches the viewer’s eye, and is hard to overlook. Since I shoot a lot of adventure sports, red works well. Adventure sports are often about adrenaline pumping action, and red supports this concept well. But red can have two different meanings in an image. On one hand red signifies love, warmth and positive feelings. But red can also be used to signify danger, anger and jealousy. In creating an image illustrating two people arguing over a traffic accident, red faces would help symbolize anger. But a couple embracing with red skin tones would signify love.
Blue has the opposite effect of red. Blue implies calm and tranquility. Blue signifies cold as well. I photograph a lot of assignments in Alaska. One subject I encounter every year are towering glaciers. These glaciers are frigid blocks of ice. What camera technique can I use to help imply cold? For starters, I want to use a neutral white balance like Daylight, not Cloudy or Shade. While I use Cloudy white balance for many landscape images, this white balance will add an orange tone and warm up my icy cold glacier, not the right effect for blue fins of ice. Use blue to support cold scenes, or to contribute to qualm, tranquil scenes.
Yellow is a friendly, welcoming color. Just imagine how many front door mats have bright yellow sunflowers on them. Beyond the attractive flowers, yellow is inviting people into your home. Yellow implies cheeriness, happiness, hope and high energy. If you want to photograph young kids and illustrate the exuberance and joy of playing in the park, yellow is a good choice. Yellow is an advancing, eye-catching color that will attract a viewer’s attention and create optimism in an image.
To create an eco-friendly image, green is your color. Green symbolizes the natural world, spring growth, and good health. Green creates a soothing feeling and promotes harmony with the surrounding environment. Many advertisers use green to convey an underlying tone to the product they are advertising. If you are selling a medicine that makes people healthy and eliminates their stress, green is a good choice. I was hired to shoot images to illustrate how visiting Alaska ‘brought you back to nature.’ We used numerous sweeping green tundra landscapes to help convey this feeling.
Orange is another eye-catching color that attaches the viewer’s attention. Think of how many distress symbols and objects use orange…life rings, traffic cones, and buoys. Orange stimulates creativity (a good thing!), enthusiasm and appetite. It also represents warmth. Similar to red, I like to use orange in my adventure sports imagery. Orange is hard to ignore and bound to get a reaction from the viewer, a great choice for a gripping adventure sports shot. Climbers summiting a peak look terrific in bright colors. Orange parkas create tension and interest in the shot, perfect for the image concept. If you have blue skies in the shot, then you have a dynamic complimentary color pattern. Put the same climbers on the summit in brown coats, and you may not even see them. You don’t want calm, relaxing colors in this image, they defeat the image concept (determination, perseverance, endurance).
Purple (or violet) signifies uniqueness and royalty. Purple is a good choice to show something that is special. Purple is also uplifting and calming, and a color used to reflect spirituality. If I wanted to photograph a woman practicing yoga and really focus in on the spirituality of the image, purple would be good choice to use in the image.
Complimentary colors are opposite one another on the color wheel. An effective way to bring some ‘snap and pop’ to your images is to combine primary and secondary colors that compliment one-another. When these colors are used side by side in an image, they set up a “conflict” or “tension” making each hue more vibrant and intense. Use this color relationship to your advantage in your images.
Red and Green
Red and green used side by side make each hue more vibrant. Imagine a red maple tree surrounded by green pine trees. The maple tree just seems to jump off the page. This is due to both shape and the complimentary color pattern. I once shot an assignment in the Virgin Islands. I photographed red kayaks traveling across the transparent green ocean as our group paddled around St. John. I couldn’t believe how the red sea kayaks seemed to vibrate in my images, all due to the complimentary color pattern.
Blue and Orange
Have you ever wondered why images from the desert southwest look so dramatic? Sure, the towering spires and arches are stunning subject matter. But consider the color palate of this arid landscape. Most of the sandstone is orange, and many days the sky overhead is blue; a perfect complimentary color pattern. The blue and orange complimentary colors make Delicate Arch even more dramatic! The desert southwest is one of the most obvious complimentary color patterns in nature.
Yellow and Purple
The last complimentary color pattern is yellow and purple. Finding this color pattern in the summer is easy. Many fields of wildflowers are composed of violet and yellow flowers. Just point and shoot, the colors will be helping you create a striking landscape image. Spend fall days in Colorado and you’ll find the aspen’s yellow fall color against azure blue skies. If you can’t find a natural complimentary color pattern, make your own. Set up a purple colored seamless background, and try photographing a model wearing yellow. Your model will ‘pop of the canvas.’
As you probably know, there are other parts to design that are important to consider as well. Line, shape, form, texture and pattern all play a role in your image concept. But it’s color that often sets the tone for a shot.
George Theodore, February 27, 2017
ISO Refers to the Sensitivity of Your Camera’s Sensor. Not!
Here’s yet another myth that belongs in the dustbin along with “you get more reach with a lens on an APS-C sensor than with a full-frame sensor”.
ISO in our digital cameras is not the same as ISO in film. Film is produced for a particular sensitivity to light and you can't change that sensitivity midstream through a roll of film. In our digital cameras, we can choose whatever ISO we want whenever we want. But, it has nothing to do with sensitivity. In fact, ISO “happens” after the shutter closes.
Here’s the way it works.
- We increase ISO
- The light falling on the sensor is reduced
- We activate the shutter capturing an underexposed image
- Shutter closes
- The signal from the sensor is amplified to achieve the desired brightness.
Because ISO is applied after exposure, some opine that ISO, therefore, has nothing to do with exposure. Well, perhaps not the same way it did with film but ISO settings do influence how much light falls on the sensor so maybe we can say it affects exposure indirectly.
So, where does noise come in? When the exposure contains fewer photons (underexposure) any noise generated becomes a larger component of the sensor’s final output signal. When that signal is amplified, both “good” and noisy parts of that signal are amplified. The total signal divided by the noisy part is what we refer to “signal to noise ratio (SNR)”. When the image is underexposed, the SNR is low which means we see more noise.
Therefore, there are more artifacts present in a higher ISO image. And, those artifacts are nothing like the grain we saw in high ISO film. Grain was kind of interesting; artifacts are just plain ugly. So, as we always tell our workshop participants: “Shoot at the lowest ISO required”. Of course, we’ll accept noise if that’s the only way we can capture a particular image.
Now, when you hear someone say “ISO changes the sensitivity of the sensor” you can, with confidence, say “no it doesn’t”. Some say, ISO “affects the camera’s sensitivity to light”. That’s not right either. ISO is all about simple amplification or “gain”.
George Theodore, January 9, 2017
I’ve used Back Button Focusing (BBF) for a very long time. And my reasons are simple: (a) it locks focus, (b) the shutter button now has but one function – shutter release, (c) after achieving focus with BBF, I can touch up my focus manually if I choose, (d) it allows me to move around a little – I can even move my tripod – and as long as the distance between me and my focal point remains constant there’s no need to refocus and (e) if something crosses between me and my subject, my focus won’t change.
But, the one thing BBF will not do is guarantee a sharp image and I have enough not-so-sharp pictures to prove it. There was a recent post (I forgotten where) that stated BBF improves image sharpness – nonsense. You want a sharp image? Use good technique – tripod, solid surface, use of shutter release cable or other remote triggers or hand hold properly and at appropriate shutter speeds (for you). BBF has absolutely nothing to do with getting the image sharp. All it does is separate the functions of shutter and focus.
I also use BBF for wildlife – but the faster or more erratic the movement, the tougher it is to use. For example, I sometimes find it difficult to track birds-in-flight with BBF but that’s just me. In these situations, I’ll often revert to using the shutter release button to assist focusing.
I find more and more photographers using BBF. If you haven’t tried it, you should consider the benefits and give it a whirl. Cameras differ in how you set up BBF but it's basically using your AF-ON button to focus and defeating the focus function of your shutter button. Consult your owner's manual.
George Theodore, May 1, 2016
Three years back, Tom wrote an article about Tripods which we carried on this site and which you can still read. This is a reminder of some of what Tom said in his piece and a result of lots of observation at our events.
With the advent of Image Stabilization, Vibration Resistance or whatever each manufacturer calls it’s “shake-proof” lenses, we see way too many photographers shunning tripods for landscape shooting and doing a lot of hand-holding. Let’s state a fact: if you want to maximize sharpness, if you want a “tack-sharp” image, if you want the cleanest image with the lowest possible noise, nothing will give you those results better than a solid platform - which your hands aren’t. As a side benfit, tripods slow the image-making process down; we take more time to look, to lhink and to compose - and that's a good thing. Finally, as we all know, a tripod is an absolute "must" for long exposures or for any type of blended imagery.
So, let’s talk about tripods: In a photographer’s lifetime, one may go through several camera bodies and lenses and even change manufacturers. The one piece of equipment that should rarely be changed is the tripod - if one makes the right choice(s) to begin with. Many new to photography know “I should have a tripod” and buy what is usually an inexpensive skinny, flimsy, light tripod. Now, one might be fortunate enough to attend an ANPW event and really learn about buying a tripod and make corrections. Others (the “unwashed”) may go through several tripods, spending a lot of money before “seeing the light”. A good tripod isn’t cheap. Neither is going through several tripods until you make a “good” choice. So, spend $1000 now or make several purchases that total $1000 or more.
What are the criteria for selecting a tripod? First, we should buy something that’s going to last. So that means solid and durable. Second (for the sake of our backs and necks) we select a tripod that, with camera mounted, places the camera eyepiece close to eye level. Third, the tripod must be capable of handling the largest load we anticipate placing on it. When calculating that load use your heaviest anticipated camera-lens combination plus the weight of the tripod head. Don’t have that big glass but thinking about a purchase soon? Consider its weight in your calculation. But, don’t forget that your tripod head also has a load rating. As a guide, Really Right Stuff uses camera-lens combination examples to help in deciding on a tripod head.
Be conservative; a general recommendation is that the tripod load rating should be three times the weight that you impose on it. So, if your load of camera, lens and head equals 12 pounds, you’re looking at a tripod capable of handling at least 36 pounds.
How about center posts? A center post limits how close we can get to ground level and raising the post makes the tripod unstable especially in wind. And, in most small tripods one is limited to around 8 pounds of gear plus head combo. But, I understand that smaller tripods can make air travel easier because they fit in checked luggage so nicely and most small tripods do have center posts. If you’re considering a center-post tripod, we recommend you not have to raise the post more than two inches to get the camera eyepiece to your eye level.
But wait, if you would rather not have the center post at all, there are other options. With today’s technology - and for just a little more money – slightly heavier and more stable tripods that collapse to lengths that won’t challenge your luggage are available so look around. For example, Really Right Stuff Series 2 tripods have a load rating of 40 pounds and they’re available in three and four leg configurations. Likewise the 50 pound rated Series 3 also comes in three and four leg options. The four-leg models collapse to very transportable lengths although, depending on the length of the luggage, you may have to remove the head. I often travel with the Series 2 or 3 with the head removed.
In the past, all the above meant “heavy”. Today, with materials like carbon fiber and basalt, we have tripods that satisfy our needs for support and stability and are easy to carry as well. On the flip side, they’re expensive. But, do it right and it may be the last tripod you buy or, at least, one you’ll have for a very long time.
Which tripod manufacturers and features do we like? Both Tom and I have tripods by Really Right Stuff. We have both owned Gitzo’s, and liked them. We find, however, that RRS tripods have a slightly thicker wall and are, pound for pound and dollar for dollar, a better choice. We prefer twist locks to lever locks and do like the ability to get really low to the ground. For casual hiking – especially longer distances - we might choose a center-post tripod but our go-to tripods are either RRS Series 2 or 3.
Questions? Shoot me an email at email@example.com
Tom Bol, February 26, 2016
In just about a month we are returning to one of my favorite locations, Patagonia. My first experience in Patagonia was leading a two-month sea kayaking expedition with my wife, Cree. For 60 timeless days we paddled remote, unexplored fjords and bays, many of which Darwin noted during his travels in the area. Highlights included practicing kayak rolls with penguins bobbing in the water beside me, and Cree finding at nine-inch primitive spear point in an ancestral fishing camp. Ever since that trip I’ve been hooked.
While the stunning landscapes of Patagonia never disappoint, I am equally excited about photographing vibrant Buenos Aires and the quaint towns in Patagonia. The people of this area are very warm and friendly, and great street photography abounds.
One thing I’ve noticed is some photographers struggle in the urban environment. Things look different than photographing glaciers, landscapes and wildlife. But just refer to your class notes on composition. The subject matter may be different, but compositional guidelines are similar. What’s different is you are photographing people, cars and ‘urban mountains’ (i.e. buildings). I’ve shot many travel assignments for publications, and the best advice I ever got from an editor is this; the viewer has to feel, touch, smell, taste and hear a location through your images. Think about creating an essay of images that really bring the experience home to your friends and family who look at your images. Don’t take snapshots; photograph the soul of the city and its personality.
Here is more magazine editor advice for travel images. I once had an editor tell me there were two kinds of travel photographers, participatory and non-participatory. Here is an example; when you photograph a person on the street, will you approach them and engage them while taking their image? Or will you shoot from the street corner so they don’t know you are there? Both methods work. If possible I like to engage my subject when taking a portrait. I feel the connection between photographer and subject is critical; this relationship is evident in strong travel portraits. Not to say I don’t shoot interesting people without them knowing, sometimes this is more practical. But keep these ideas in your mind when taking street portraits.
Below I’ve outlined 15 points for street photography. Some are obvious, others maybe less so. Just remember the next time you are in a city en route to a beautiful landscape, street photography can be just as rewarding and beautiful, you just have to go out and shoot!
- Patience. Look for interesting backgrounds, and wait for the right subject to move through it for an interesting composition.
- Juxtaposition: Two things being seen together with contrasting effect. Think about patterns, colors, shapes, subjects; be aware of possible pairings.
- Light. Subject is important, but so is light. Without light, you don’t have a photograph. Try approaching scenes looking for the most interesting light, not just the subject. Then wait for subject to move into good light.
- Shadow. “Light illuminates the subject, shadow gives it dimension.” Look for interesting shadows, and anticipate where they might occur.
- Perspective. Be very aware of what angle you are photographing your subject. Change angle to increase graphic elements. Shoot high and low.
- Intuition. Street smarts. Be aware of situations around you that might make good photographs. Conversely, avoid situations that are unsafe.
- Reflections. Rainy days are great! Umbrellas and reflections! Car mirrors, canals, lakes…
- Layers/frames. Shoot through objects such as windows, screens, arches to add layers and more depth to shot. Transform 2D into 3D.
- Motion. Experiment with motion in people, cars, markets. Try pan and blurs, ‘shakies’ and ‘zoomies’. Freeze the action; blur the action.
- Courteous. Photographing people is personal, whether your subject knows it or not. Be courteous, and respect people’s wishes. If with a group (like a workshop or tour), remember you’re a representative of that group. If you’re in a foreign country, remember you’re representing your country too.
- Twilight. Great time for street and city lights with details still in the sky.
- Close. Try photographing your subject with a 50mm lens. Get close, meet someone, share the moment. Create the ‘honest shot’.
- Events. Festivals and events are good for photography, lots of subjects. Research these before you go
- Graphics. Use line, shape, form, texture, pattern and color to create strong images. Speak to the viewer graphically…not literally.
- Experience. In the end, you want people to ‘experience’ your travel and street photography. They should be able to see it, hear it , smell it and touch it.